Glossary of Terms


Diagnostic Equipment

Diseases and Conditions

Glossary of Terms


Accommodation: Focusing power of the eye as an object is moved either closer or further away.

Adverse Reaction: An unwanted side affect caused by a drug (See Side Effect).

Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD): Disease process in which the macula, also known as the central, color, and detail oriented section of vision degenerates; occurs with age, has two phases known as wet macular degeneration, which is the most severe of the two and dry macular degeneration (See Non Exudative AMD and Exudative AMD).

Blind: Participants and possibly the doctor/s are unaware of which drug the participant will be receiving; also known as masked.

Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: (BRVO) A blockage of blood flow through a branch in the central retinal vein.

Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: (CRVO) A blockage of blood flow through the central retinal vein.

Choroid: Provides major part of nutrients to the retina through blood vessels. Part of the uvea.

Ciliary Body: Muscles used in the process of lens accommodation and regulation of intraocular pressure.

Clinic Coordinator: A person who know the ins-and-outs of a study and who makes all arrangements for the participant.

Clinical Trial: A person who know the ins-and-outs of a study and who makes all arrangements for the participant.

Constrict: To make small. Typically pupils constrict or get smaller in bright light.

Control Group: Participants who receive the standard treatment .

Diabetes: Chronic disease that affects sugar glucose levels in blood.

Diabetic Macular Edema: (DME) Diabetic caused eye disease that promotes swelling of the macula due to abnormal blood vessel leakage.

Dilate: To amke large. Typically pupils dilate or get bigger in low light.

Double Masked: Term used to define both participant's and doctor's unawareness as to which treatment group the participant is in.

Dry Macular Degeneration: See Non Exudative AMD.

Exudative AMD (Wet AMD): Results from abnormal blood vessels that form and break underneath the retina. This causes swelling and scarring of the retina and macula.

Food and Drug Administration: (FDA)

Intraocular: Pertaining to anything inside of the eye itself.

Intraocular Pressure: Pressure of fluid inside of the eye.

Iris: Colored part of the eye that controls amount of light coming the in by constricting and dilating the pupil.

Ischemic: Lack of blood supply to any part of the eye due to a blockage.

Lens: Transparent intraocular lens in the eye that helps to bring and focus light on the retina.

Macula: Center of the retina that controls center, color, and detail vision.

Masked: Term used to define participants who do not know what treatment group they are in.

Non Exudative AMD: (Dry AMD) Result of the breakdown of retinal cells which deposit yellow/white spots on the macula. More common than the Exudative form. Some people experience a gradual blurring of the central vision whereas others have no symptoms.

Phase I Trial: First step in the clinical process. Phase in which the drug dosage is tested until it is at its most effective and safest dosage level.

Phase II Trial : Second step in the clinical trial process. Patients are given the drug from Phase I to determine its effectiveness in treating a disease

Phase III Trial : Third step in the clinical trial process. Patients and physicians are usually double masked. Participants are divided into a treatment group and a control group to determine which treatment is most effective when treating a particular disease.

Phase IV Trial : Fourth and last step in the clinical process. Phase in which the FDA has already approved the drug and treatment for public use and watches for potential long-term side effects.


Principal Investigator: The researcher, typically the ophthalmologist, who is in charge of a study.


Protocol : A detailed treatment plan regarding a participant's regimen.

Pupil: Small black opening in the middle if the iris that regulates the amount of light entering the eye.

Regimen: A schedule in which a drug is administered, the dosage amount is recorded, and the time in between dosages is noted.

Retina: Light sensitive layer located on the back of the eye that provides sight.

Side Effect: Any unpleasant reaction caused by a drug or treatment. Symptoms may include upset stomach, headache, dizziness, itching, hives, or any other unpleasant physical reaction. See Adverse Reaction.

Standard Treatment: A drug or treatment that has been FDA approved and is in general use.

Transparent: The ability of light to shine through an object so that objects beyond it are distictly seen.

Treatment Group: Participants who receive the new treatment.

Uvea: Pigmented layers of the eye that contain intraocular blood vessels: includes the iris, ciliary body, and the choroid.

Uveitis : Inflammation of any part of the uvea.

Wet Macular Degeneration : See Exudative AMD.

Integrated Clinical Research, LLC
dba Retina Research Institute of Texas

Sunil S. Patel, M.D., Ph.D.
S. Young Lee, M.D.
5441 Health Center Dr.
Abilene, Texas 79606
Phone: 325-690-4414
Toll free: 800-810-7411
Fax: 325-690-4452